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First Indian Scientist to Win Nobel Prize


Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (C.V. Raman) was the first Indian scientist to win Nobel Prize. C.V. Raman was awarded the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the Raman effect, which is named after him. Raman effect relates to the inelastic scattering of a photon. When light is scattered from an atom or molecule, most photons are elastically scattered (Rayleigh scattering). The scattered photons have the same energy (frequency) and, therefore, wavelength, as the incident photons. However, a small fraction of scattered light (approximately 1 in 10 million photons) is scattered from excitations with optical frequencies different from, and usually lower than, the frequency of the incident photons. Raman effect is helpful in analyzing the composition of liquids, gases, and solids.

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Largest Zoo in India
The Zoological Garden in Kolkata is the largest Zoo in India. It is spread over an area of about 100 acres. The Zoo is located on Belvedre road in Kolkata and was established in 1876. The zoo is home to a rich variety of birds, animals, and reptiles.

The origins of the Zoo can be traced back to 1873, when, the then Governor Sir Richard Temple proposed the formation of a zoo in Calcutta. Sir C.L. Lendal corroborated it. Finally, the Government allotted land for this purpose responding to the joint petition of the Asiatic Society and Agri-Horticultural Society. The zoo was inaugurated on the January 1, 1876 by King Edward VII.

Zoological Garden, Kolkata is credited with bringing back the rare Manipur Brow Antlered Deer from near extinction. The zoo was first to have bred Giraffes and has produced Tigions, and Litigons as a cross breeding experiment. The artificial lake of the zoo attracts a large number of migratory birds every year.
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Largest Prison in India
Tihar Jail Complex in New Delhi is the largest prison complex in India. It comprises of nine prisons in the Tihar Complex with a sanction capacity of 4800 prisoners and one District Jail at Rohini with a sanction capacity of 1050 prisoners. Before 1958, the Jail was located at Delhi Gate area of Delhi. In 1958, the prison was transferred from Delhi Gate to its present site in Tihar Village in western part of New Delhi. In the beginning, only one Central Jail was commissioned with the lodging capacity of 1267 prisoners. Till 1966, the administrative control of the Jail was with the Government of Punjab. In 1966, the control of Tihar Jail was transferred to the Delhi Administration, Delhi in 1966.
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Largest Planetarium in India
The M. P. Birla Planetarium in Kolkata is the largest planetarium in India. The planetarium started functioning from September 29, 1962 as an educational, scientific and research institution and was formally inaugurated on July 2, 1963 by the first Prime Minister of India Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. M. P. Birla Planetarium is established on an acre of land leased by the West Bengal Government.

Since its inception, M. P. Birla Planetarium has designed and presented more than 350 astronomical projects dealing with many facets of astronomy, astro-physics, Celestial Mechanics, Space Science, History of astronomy, Centenaries of famous astronomers as well as mythology concerning stars and planets. The Planetarium owns an astronomical observatory equipped with a Celestron C-14 Telescope with accessories such as ST6 CCD Camera, Solar Filter etc.
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